博益智学习网—让天下没有难考的考试!
返回
顶部
当前位置: 首页 >> 英语必看

胡壮麟语言学教程第4版配套题库

[] [] [] 发布人:博益智学习网   发布日期:2019-12-21 20:54   共 34 人浏览过

胡壮麟《语言学教程》(第4版)配套题库【名校考研真题+课后习题+章节题库+模拟试题】

下载地址/EBook/175413.html

第一部分是名校考研真题。本书精选了北京外国语大学、中山大学、南开大学等众多名校的语言学考研真题,并对考研真题提供了详细的参考答案。通过该部分,考生可以熟知考研真题的命题风格和难度。

第二部分是课后习题。该部分参考胡壮麟《语言学教程(第4版)练习册》中的英文练习及参考答案完成。

第三部分是章节题库,严格按照胡壮麟《语言学教程》(第4版)的章目编排,共分为12章,精选与各章内容配套的习题并进行详解;所选试题基本涵盖了每章的考点和难点。

第四部分是模拟试题及详解,根据名校历年考研真题的命题规律,精选教材中的重要考点,精心编写了两套模拟试题,并进行了详细的解答。


课后习题答案

第一部分 名校考研真题

2017年中山大学837语言学考研真题及参考答案


考试科目:外国语言学与应用语言学


I. Explain the following terms. (10 points for each term)

1. allomorph

【答案】Those morphs which represent the same morpheme are called the allomorphs of the same morpheme. For instance, the noun plural morpheme {plural} in English has [-s], [-z], [-iz], [-ai], [-n], [-i] and other morphs, such morphs are termed as the allomorphs of the morpheme {plural}. Some morphemes have a single form in all contexts, some others may have considerable variations; some morphemic shapes represent different morphemes and thus have different meanings, for instance, the morphemic shapes {-s} can express plurality in desks, person/ finiteness in speaks and case in girl’s.查看答案

Words such as illogical, imbalance, irregular and inactive share a common morpheme in-. In other words, il-, ira-, and ir- are exceptionally the variation forms of one morpheme in-. These variation forms are called ALLOMORPHs, i.e. allomorphs of the same morpheme owing to the influence of the sounds to which it attaches. Other instances are such as the variation of plural forms of nouns. -s, -es, -en, -ee-, o, -ce and -yes.


2. diglossia

【答案】The term diglossia, first used by Ferguson in 1959, refers to a sociolinguistic situation similar to bilingualism. But instead of two different languages, in a diglossic situation two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play. The language which Ferguson used as examples are Arabic, Modem Greek, Swiss German and Haitian Creole. Each of these languages has two varieties: the high variety (H) and the low variety (L). The two varieties have overt recognition in the community and have commonly known and used labels. H-variety is used in government, the media, education and for religious services. The other one is usually a non-prestige variety, the low variety used in the family, with friends, when shopping, etc.查看答案

One of the most important features of diglossia is the specialization of function of the two varieties. Each variety is the appropriate language for certain situations with very slight overlapping.


3. embedding

【答案】Embedding refers to the means by which one clause is included in the sentence (main clause) in syntactic subordination which is also called center embedding in linguistics. Different languages accommodate this construction in various ways, but many of them allow for instances where a smaller, or more precise, unit of speech can be included in a fuller sentence. When this phrase is integrated whole into the larger one, it is often referred to as center embedding. One of the most common examples of center embedded phrases involves relative clauses that get injected into larger sentences. One basic example is a sentence like this one: “The man that the woman heard left.” – In this example of center embedding, if the relative clause was entirely taken out, a shorter sentence might read like this: “The man left.” The inclusion of the relative clause serves to show the reader that there was a woman who heard the man, and this leads to the appearance of the phenomenon of center embedding in the sentence. Thus the basic function of embedding is to demonstrate more details about the meaning of the original sentence.查看答案


4. idiom

【答案】An idiom is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom’s figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages. It is estimated that there are at least twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions in the English language.查看答案


5. pragmatics

【答案】Pragmatics can be defined in various ways. A general definition is that it is the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication. As the process of communication is essentially a process of conveying and understanding meaning in a certain context, pragmatics can also be regarded as a kind of meaning study. Pragmatics is a comparatively new branch of study in the area of linguistics; its development and establishment in the 1960s and 1970s resulted mainly from the expansion of the study of linguistics, especially that of semantics. Pragmatics is the study of language in use, focusing on the study of speaker’s meaning, utterance meaning or contextual meaning. Pragmatics and semantics are both linguistic studies of meaning, so they are related to as well as different from each other. It differs from the kind of meaning we studied in semantics in that it takes context into consideration while semantics concentrate on the study of literal meaning without context.查看答案


6. loan translation

【答案】Loan translation is a special type of borrowing, in which each morpheme or word is translated in the equivalent morpheme or word in another language. For instance, the English word almighty is a literal translation from the Latin omnipotens. This is also called CALQUE, which may be a word, a phrase, or even a short sentence. The English expression free verse was translated from Latin’s verse libre, and black humour is a loan translation from French humour noir, so is found object from French objet trouve.查看答案


7. interlanguage

【答案】The type of language constructed by second or foreign language learners who are still in the process of learning a language is often referred to as Interlanguage. Interlanguage is often understood as a language system between the target language and the learner’s native language. It is imperfect compared with the target language, but it is not mere translation from the learner’s native language either. However, interlanguage should not really be seen as a bridging language between or a mixture of the target language and native language. Interlanguage is a dynamic language system, which is constantly moving from the departure level to the native-like level. Therefore, “inter” actually means between the beginning stage and the final stage. Studies on interlanguage can be done in two ways: (1) investigating the psychological, biological or neurological mechanisms involved in the production of interlanguage; (2) investigating the linguistic features of interlanguage. The former type of research has been widely conducted, whereas the latter type has not received due attention.查看答案


8. communicative competence

【答案】Communicative competence includes both the knowledge about the language and the knowledge about how to use the language appropriately in communicative situations. It includes five main components of communicative competence. Namely, linguistic competence, pragmatic competence, discourse competence, strategic competence, and fluency.查看答案

(1) Linguistic competence ‘is concerned with knowledge of the language itself, its form and meaning’ (Hedge, 2000:46). More specifically, it involves spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, grammatical structure, sentence structure, and semantics. Hedge emphasises that linguistic competence is an integral part of communicative competence and it is wrong to think that communicative language teaching does not aim for high standard of linguistic correctness.

(2) Pragmatic competence is concerned with the appropriate use of the language in social context. That is to say, the choice of the vocabulary and structure depends on the setting, the relative status of the speakers, and their relationships. The above tasks have illustrated this point. In Hymes’s words, to know ‘when to speak, when not, what to talk about with whom, when, where and in what manner’

(3) Discourse competence refers to one’s ability to create coherent written text or conversation and the ability to understand them (Canale and Swain, 1980). In other words, it is one’ s ability to express or to understand a topic logically and coherently by effectively employing or comprehending the cohesive markers used in the discourse such as: ‘by the same token’, ‘to put it in other words’, ‘first’, ‘second’, ‘at last’, and also the reference words such as ‘it’, ‘they’, ‘that’, etc. in the context. It is these cohesive words which hold meaning together in a sensible way. Discourse competence, according to Hedge (2000), also includes one’s ability to initiate, develop, enter, interrupt, check, or confirm in a conversation.


相关资料推荐

刘润清《新编语言学教程》配套题库【考研真题精选+章节题库】

/Ebook/965045.html

戴炜栋《新编简明英语语言学教程》(第2版)配套题库【考研真题精选+章节题库】

/Ebook/965029.html

刘润清《新编语言学教程》笔记和课后习题(含考研真题)详解

/Ebook/174985.html

更多相关资料下载


2007-2019 All rights reserved. 京ICP备09054306号 京公网安备110108008113号 新出发(京)批字第直110028号

全国热线:17716592573 qq:840087995

有问题欢迎随时咨询!


京ICP备09054306号 鄂公网安备 42011102000951号 营业执照 增值电信业务经营许可证 出版经营许可证 网络文化经营许可证

国家高新技术企业 中关村高新技术企业 湖北省版权示范单位 知识产权管理体系认证 教育行业诚信推荐企业 安全联盟信誉企业 AAA级信用企业 瞪羚企业

 

圣才电子书(武汉)有限公司 提供技术支持和信息存储空间
联系我们
QQ号:840087995【周老师】
QQ号:840087995【王老师】
QQ号:840087995【李老师】